Search by item HOME > Access full text > Search by item

JBE, vol. 23, no. 1, pp.74-85, January, 2018


Effects of Image Resolution and HMD Luminance on Virtual Reality Viewing Experience

Hyejin Lee and Donghun Chung

C.A E-mail:


The research investigated the interaction effect of video resolution and device luminance on the perceived characteristics, presence, and fatigue viewing virtual reality. Experiments were composed of mixed design, and the resolution and luminance were classified into three types, HD, 2K, and 4K, and 20, 60, and 100, respectively. Participants watched video of 6-minutes randomly, and responded to the questionnaire after watching each video. The results showed that no interaction effect existed. Meanwhile, there are statistically significant differences on the luminance of depth perception, the resolution of visual intervention, and the resolution of adjustment fatigue. Also, higher resolution and luminance showed higher cognitive function, presence and fatigue.

Keyword: virtual reality, resolution, luminance, presence, fatigue

[1] K. S. Lee, and Y. S. Kim, “Implementation of A Stereoscopic 3D Game To Reduce Visual Artifacts Using Oculus Rift”, The korean society for computer game, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 193-201, 2014.

[2] J. H. Kim, "A study on the property of visual perception of interior space according to eye movement", Korean institute of interior design, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35-42, 2009.

[3] H. J. Park, and H. C. Moon, "Design Evaluation of Portable Electronic Products Using AR-Based Interaction and Simulation", Transactions of the Society of CAD/CAM, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 209-216, 2008.

[4] Y. S. Choi, S. I. Kang, and H. K. Hong, "Using Camera and Acceleration Sensor in Augmented Reality for Mobile Game", vol. 23, pp. 125-130, 2010.

[5] E. S. Kim, "Hologram avatar and UX", Korea Information Processing Society review, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 48-51, 2014.
[6] G. Burdea, "Review paper—Virtual rehabilitation-benefits and challenges." In 2003 International Medical Informatics Association Yearbook of Medical Informatics, pp. 170-176, 2003.
[7] J. H. Kim, "A Study on Effective Three-dimensional Representation for Creating 3D Stereoscopic Animation", The Korean Journal of animation, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 53-84, 2011.
[8] P. Milgram, and F. Kishino, "A taxonomy of mixed reality visual display", IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems, vol. 77 no. 12, pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
[9] P. J. Sung, "Optometry", Daihaks Publishing Comoany, Korea, 2003.
[10] Y. M. Kim, H. B. Park, and K. G. Mah, "Survey of the Attention Deficit · Hyperactivity Disorder and Visual Perception in Students who live in Daejeon city", The Korean Journal of Vision Science, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 85-99, 2006.
[11] L. Spencer, J. Iacoponi, S. Shah, and C. Cairns, "P. 134L: late news poster: resolution limits for smartphones—video playback", SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 1099-1102, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2013.
[12] K. Masaoka, M. Emoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Nojiri, "Contrast effect in evaluating the sense of presence for wide displays." Journal of the Society for Information Display, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 785-791, 2006.
[13] C. I. Kim, J. S. Ko, I. K. Ahn, J. H. Lee, K. W. Seo, J. H. Kwon, Y. H. Joo, and Y. J. Oh, "Studying the Viewers' Acceptability on the Image Resolutions and Assessing the ROI-Based Scheme for Mobile Displays", The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 336-348, 2006.
[14] A. Paljic, C. de Bossoreille, P. Fuchs, and G. Soubies, "High resolution insets for stereocopic immersive displays: a method for 3D content dependent inset boundaries", In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology. ACM, pp. 245-246, 2009.
[15] Y. J. Park, J. H. Choi, and M. G. Jang, "Optimization of Light Source Combination through the Illuminance and Color Temperature Simulation of Circadian Lighting Apparatus", The korea contents association, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 248-254, 2009.
[16] J. M. Park, K. Y. Im, and S. D. Lee, "An Ergonomic Study on the Effects of Veiling Reflection in Visibility", Ergonomics Society, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 13-21, 2000.
[17] J. W. Son, and K. B. Kim, "Study on the color scheme effective operators screen of submarine", CICS 2014 Information and Control Conference, pp. 248-250.
[18] R. Zhang, "Design of Head Mounted Displays", Retrieved from Design%20of%20head%20mounteddisplays%20Zhang.pdf, Dec. 2007.
[19] M. Lombard, and T. Ditton, "At the heart of it all: The concept of presence", Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, vol. 3, no. 2, 1997.
[20] D. J. Lee, and J. H. Chung, "A Factor Analysis of Augmented reality Presence", The Treatise on The Plastic Media, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 137-142, 2012.
[21] Y. H. So, "Impact of the Audience experienced the Presence of Levels and Arousal, Memory, Impressive Effects on 3D Stereoscopic Image", Korea Digital Design Council, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 89-98, 2013.
[22] S. H Lim, and J. I. Chung, "Viewers' Psychophysiological and Self-report Responses to 3D Stereoscopic Display", The korea contents association, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 211-222, 2012.
[23] H. J. Bong, and J. Y. Lee, "'Mixed reality continuum' using Augmented Reality Design", Korea Digital Design Council, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 449-457, 2012.
[24] K. H. Han, and H. T. Kim, "The Cause and Solution of Cybersickness in 3D Virtual Environments", Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 287-29, 2011.
[25] E. K. Yim, and K. T. Kham, "Predictability of Visually Induced Motion Sickness by Orientation Illusion", Social Science Studies, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 261-280, 2014.
[26] J. L. Dorado, and P. A. Figueroa, "Methods to reduce cybersickness and enhance presence for in-place navigation techniques", 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2015 IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, 2015.
[27] J. J. LaViola, "A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments." ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 47-56, 2000.
[28] I. J. Hwang, S. C. Kim, E. H. Chang, H. J. Jeon, Y. S. Chun, C. H. Park, and H. T. Kim, "Effect of an Independent Visual Foreground on Cybersickness in Virtual Environment", Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 251-263, 2012.
[29] R. S. Kennedy, M. G. Lilienthal, K. S. Berbaum, D. R. Baltzley, and M. E. McCauley, "Simulator sickness in US Navy flight simulators", Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 10-16, 1989.
[30] R. S. Kennedy, N. E. Lane, M. G. Lilienthal, K. S. Berbaum, and L. J. Hettinger, "Profile analysis of simulator sickness symptoms: Application to virtual environment systems." Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 295-301, 1992.
[31] H. C. Yang, and D. H. Chung, "Influence of 3D Characteristics Perception on Presence, and Presence on Visual Fatigue and Perceived Eye Movement", The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60-72, 2012.
[32] H. J. Lee, D. H. Chung, M. H. Jang, and K. C. Mah, "Assessment of Fatigue with Viewing the Shutter Glasses and Film Patterned Retarder 3D TVs" The Korean Journal of Vision Science, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 169-179, 2014.
[33] D. Y. Chung, "Virtual reality technology trends and prospects", Korea Multimedia Society, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1-8, 2016.


Editorial Office
1108, New building, 22, Teheran-ro 7-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea
Homepage: TEL: +82-2-568-3556 FAX: +82-2-568-3557
Copyrightⓒ 2012 The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
All Rights Reserved