Search by item HOME > Access full text > Search by item

JBE, vol. 22, no. 5, pp.643-651, September, 2017


A Statistical Approach for Improving the Embedding Capacity of Block Matching based Image Steganography

Jaeyoung Kim, Hanhoon Park, and Jong-Il Park

C.A E-mail:


Steganography is one of information hiding technologies and discriminated from cryptography in that it focuses on avoiding the existence the hidden information from being detected by third parties, rather than protecting it from being decoded. In this paper, as an image steganography method which uses images as media, we propose a new block matching method that embeds information into the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. The proposed method, based on a statistical analysis, reduces loss of embedding capacity due to inequable use of candidate blocks. It works in such a way that computes the variance of each candidate block, preserves candidate blocks with high frequency components while reducing candidate blocks with low frequency components by compressing them exploiting the k-means clustering algorithm. Compared with the previous block matching method, the proposed method can reconstruct secret images with similar PSNRs while embedding higher-capacity information.


Keyword: Image steganography, block matching, discrete wavelet transform, high capacity, block variance, statistical analysis

[1] J. Zollner, H. Federrath, H. Klimant, A. Pfitzmann, R Piotraschke, A. Westfeld, G. Wicke, and G. Wolf, “Modeling the Security of Steganographic Systems,” Proc. of Workshop on Information Hiding, pp. 345-355, 1988.
[2] H. Kim, “Theoretical Background and Detection Technique of Steganography,” Journal of the Korea Information Security, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 34-47, 2002.
[3] K. Jung, J. Lee, and K. Yoo, “Steganography on Android Smart Devices,” Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 100-105, 2015.
[4] D. C. Wu and W. H. T, “A Steganographic Method for Images by Pixel-Value Differencing,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 24, pp. 1613-1626, 2003.
[5] J. Kim, H. Park, and J-I. Park, “PVD Image Steganography with Locally-fixed Number of Embedding Bits,” Journal of Broadcast Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 350-365, 2017.
[6] S. Ji, “A Study of Optimal Image Steganography Based on LSB Techniques,” Journal of the Korea Industrial Information Systems Research, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 29-36, 2015.
[7] Y. Lee, Y. Seo, and D. Kim, “Hologram Watermarking using Fresnel Diffraction Model,” Proc. of the Korea Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 606-615, 2014.
[8] W. Sohn and L. N. T. dung, “A Blind Watermarking Scheme using Singular Vector Based on DWT/RDWT/SVD,” Journal of Broadcast Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 149-156, 2016.
[9] Y. Lee, Y. Seo, and D. Kim, “A Robust Blind Watermarking for Digital Image using DWT According to Its Resolution,” Journal of Broadcast Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 888-900, 2015.
[10] S. Youssef, A. A. elfarag, and R. Raouf, “A Robust Steganography Model using Wavelet-based Block-partition Modification,” Interna- tional Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 15-28, 2011.
[11] S. Singh and T. J. Siddiqui, “A Security Enhanced Robust Steganography Algorithm for Data Hiding,” International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 131-139, 2012.
[12] J. Kim, H. Park, and J-I. Park, “Image Steganography Based on Block Matching in DWT Domain,” Proc. of BMSB, Cagliary, Italy, 2017.
[13] T. Kanungo, D. Mount, N. Netanyahu, C. Piako, R. Silverman, and A. Wu, “An Efficient -means Clustering Algorithm: Analysis and Implementation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 24, No. 7, pp. 881-892, 2000.


Editorial Office
1108, New building, 22, Teheran-ro 7-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea
Homepage: TEL: +82-2-568-3556 FAX: +82-2-568-3557
Copyrightⓒ 2012 The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
All Rights Reserved